Bad news came from the journal, Annals of Internal Medicine, to the smokers. People kept thinking that if you do not inhale, as cigars and pipes, it will not do any harm to your lungs. This postulate, in fact, has not been proven in researchs¸ perhaps no one has asked this unique question. Albeit, association with cigar/pipe/cigarette smoking and head and neck cancer is clearer than lung cancer.
Dr. Josanna Rodriguez from Columbia University has asked 3528 participants a detailed questionnaire of their smoking habits, and cross checked with their urine cotinine levels. They measured their lung functions with spirometry.
The conclusion is: “Pipe and cigar smoking increased urine cotinine levels and was associated with decreased lung function and increased odds of airflow obstruction, even in participants who had never smoked cigarettes.”
J. Rodriguez, R. Jiang, W.C. Johnson, B.A. MacKenzie, L.J. Smith, and R.G. Barr. “The Association of Pipe and Cigar Use With Cotinine Levels, Lung Function, and Airflow Obstruction. A Cross-sectional Study”. Annals of Internal Medicine (volume 152, p. 201-210).